Research Question 4: Critical Challenges

What do you see as the key challenges that Norwegian schools will face during the next 5 years?

INSTRUCTIONS: Enter your responses to the questions below. This is most easily done by moving your cursor to the end of the last item and pressing RETURN to create a new bullet point. Please include URLs whenever you can (full URLs will automatically be turned into hyperlinks; please type them out rather than using the linking tools in the toolbar).

As you review what others have written, please add your thoughts and comments as well.

Please "sign" each of your contributions by marking with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples- this produces a signature when the page is updated, like this: - Larry Larry Feb 7, 2012



Compose your entries like this: * Challenge Name. Add your ideas here, with few sentences of description including full URLs for references (e.g. http://horizon.nmc.org). And do not forget to sign your contribution with 4 ~ (tilde) characters! ----



  • The demand for personalized learning is not adequately supported by current technology or practices. The increasing demand for education that is customized to each student's unique needs is driving the development of new technologies that provide more learner choice and control and allow for differentiated instruction, but there remains a gap between the vision and the tools needed to achieve it. The notion that one-size-fits-all teaching methods are neither effective nor acceptable for today's diverse students is generally accepted among K-12 educators. * - Sam Sam Many of the challenges that educators face is a. lack of competence, knowledge and learning strategies for how to personalize education. But as long as they are working in an exam-based system where everybody have to adapt to the same system and knowledge requirements it is difficult to change practise. Tere are challenges is the system that locks teacher and learners in the current practise. * COMMENT: The desire for personalized services is rooted in the idea that ICT has a huge unrealized potential in individualized learning. > An important element of developing personification: ICT, digital learning resources and learning materials to the greatest extent possible, should be tailored to the individual pupil or student, and that the use of ICT is the result of the student informed choices. "Personalization" is thus not a property of a service or resource. Personification is a value chain that involves several elements of interaction, and it requires different degrees of automation, standardization, data flow and open interfaces. Personification also requires good digital competence among students and teachers. > Here are three assumptions that ICT can contribute to personalization of learning: 1)Personal learning environments, which allows you to choose ICT tools and digital learning resources 2)Digital identity management, that defines you as an individual 3)Learning Analysis, which identifies the individual student's needs in the learning situation. - morten.soby morten.soby Sep 17, 2013 ‘‘‘‘, the last point also includes needs with regard to (dis)abilites - Kristin.Skeide.Fuglerud Kristin.Skeide.Fuglerud Sep 21, 2013
  • K-12 must address the increased blending of formal and informal learning. Traditional lectures and subsequent testing are still dominant learning vehicles in schools. In order for students to get a well-rounded education with real world experience, they must also engage in more informal in-class activities as well as experience learning outside the classroom. In most schools, students are not encouraged to do this, nor to experiment and take risks with their learning, but new models are finding their way into practice. The “flipped classroom,” for example, uses educational materials on the Internet as a primary content strategy. New concepts and material are initially studied outside of school, thus preserving class time to refine mastery with discussions, collaborations with classmates, problem solving, and experimentation. The approach is not a panacea, and designing an effective blended learning model is key, but the growing success of the many non-traditional alternatives to schools that are using more informal approaches indicates that this challenge is being confronted. - vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Sep 29, 2013 - June.M.Breivik June.M.Breivikthe flipped model can have benefits for pupils by the fact that it gives more flexibility with regards to instruction. But it does not challenge the basic model of education, the teacher who knows it all, syncronous learning, one size fits all. It is a way of delivering education that fits the existing model, only with the use of new tools.
  • Learning that incorporates real life experiences is not occurring enough and is undervalued when it does take place. This challenge is an important one in K-12 schools, because it can greatly impact the engagement of students who are seeking some connection between the world as they know it exists outside of school, and their experiences in school that are meant to prepare them for that world. Use of project-based learning practices that incorporate real-life experiences, technology and tools that are already familiar to students, and mentoring from community members are examples of practices that can bring the real world into the classroom. Practices like these may help retain students in school and prepare them for further education, careers, and citizenship in a way that traditional practices are failing to do. * COMMENT: Real life experiences are undervalued in education because they don´t align with the assessment. It is easier to stay within the known paradigm. In order to cross over we need to develop new methods of assessment. Not just to do digital assessment (see further down), since we still tend to assess knowledge and not competency. - jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Sep 19, 2013- thomas.hepso thomas.hepso Sep 21, 2013. Bringing in real life experiences, that is unknown and that might take a number of directions, is also more challenging for the teacher. It is safer to stay with a structured and known content- ingvill.rasmussen ingvill.rasmussen Sep 28, 2013
  • Many activities related to learning and education take place outside the walls of the classroom and thus are not part of traditional learning metrics. Students can take advantage of learning material online, through games and programs they may have on systems at home, and through their extensive — and constantly available — social networks. The experiences that happen in and around these venues are difficult to tie back to the classroom, as they tend to happen serendipitously and in response to an immediate need for knowledge, rather than being related to topics currently being studied in school. * COMMENT: Leaning has always been like this, but we have an increasing demand for making school and learning activities motivating. Thereforewe need to tie these to practises toghether. - Liv.Dahlin Liv.Dahlin Sep 22, 2013There is a gap between: the conception of digital competence at schools and the social practices between people in the digital environments outside school hours. But just giving access to technologies for young people is not enough, they need teacher leading the learning process, mentoring and rich learning systems, otherwise the full potential of these technologies is not realized for these children. - morten.soby morten.soby Sep 24, 2013. We also need to remember that the nature and the content of school learning is not necessarily like other learning activity- e.g. everyday concepts differ from scientific concepts- ingvill.rasmussen ingvill.rasmussen Sep 28, 2013- vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Sep 29, 2013
  • New models of education are bringing unprecedented competition to the traditional models of education. Across the board, institutions are looking for ways to provide a high quality of service and more opportunities for learning. MOOCs are at the forefront of these discussions, and have opened the doorway to entirely new ways of thinking about online learning. K-12 institutions are latecomers to distance education in most cases, but competition from specialized charter schools and for-profit providers has called attention to the needs of today’s students, especially those at risk. * Ongoing professional development needs to be valued and integrated into the culture of the schools. There is immense pressure placed on teachers to incorporate emerging technologies and new media in their classrooms and curriculum. All too often, when schools mandate the use of a specific technology, teachers are left without the tools (and often skills) to effectively integrate the new capabilities into their methods. The results are that the new investments are underutilized, not used at all, or used in a way that mimics an old process rather than innovating new processes that may be more engaging for students.- ingvill.rasmussen ingvill.rasmussen Sep 28, 2013 * COMMENT: Together with the skills the teacher need to be able to use the emerging technologies, is new learning/teaching materials a vital ingredience, and time to test the use of this. This means it is in the school-owners and school-leaders hands to give teachers time to develop their practice. At the same time new learning materials and resources has to be developed. - Liv.Dahlin Liv.Dahlin Sep 22, 2013 Institutions will face increased competition across borders and across languages as access to content/MOOC and top teachers/institutions improve. Learners will have access to new devices which will provide access to waste amount of classes/courses, interactive content and flexible learning situations.- per.hetland per.hetland Sep 24, 2013 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Sep 29, 2013
  • Organizations are challenged to ensure quality while engaging in the use of rapidly changing, ever-evolving technologies. As new information and new technologies are readily available, at the fingertips of learners, educational institutions must find ways to intervene and remain a part of the relationship between the technology and the student. These organizations must make wise, up-to-date decisions when investing in and implementing technologies. To do so, they must conduct extensive research and regard technologies and their potential applications from all angles. Collaborations between institutions in the exploration of emerging technology provide them with opportunities to exchange ideas, success stories, obstacles, and develop best practices. * COMMENT: The increasing demand in higher education for research and publications in "counting" publications, take the focus away from the daily teaching and small scale projects and development in the classroom. Educators are asked to be more researchers than educators. One need to focus on both research and development. - Liv.Dahlin Liv.Dahlin Sep 22, 2013
  • Simply staying organized and current presents a challenge in a world where information, software tools, and devices proliferate at the rate they do today. New developments in technology are exciting and their potential for improving quality of life is enticing, but it can be overwhelming to attempt to keep up with even a few of the many new tools that are released. User-created content is exploding, giving rise to information, ideas, and opinions on all sorts of interesting topics, but following even some of the hundreds of available authorities means sifting through a mountain of information on a weekly or daily basis. There is a greater need than ever for effective tools and filters for finding, interpreting, organizing, and retrieving the data that is important to us. * A teachers day is already packed, and there is to little time to test, and keep up with all the emerging trends. But if other teachers have tried, tested and found useful new technologies and then share this, most ( a lot of )teachers are eager to try themselves if they can see that it would add to their practice. The challenge is to make good teaching materials, and find effective ways to present this to the teachers for implementation. - Liv.Dahlin Liv.Dahlin Sep 22, 2013
  • Too often it is education’s own practices that limit broader uptake of new technologies. Resistance to change simply reflects comfort with the status quo. In many cases, experimentation with or piloting of innovative applications of technologies are often seen as outside the role of teacher or school leader, and thus discouraged. Changing these processes will require major shifts in attitudes as much as they will in policy. - June.M.Breivik June.M.Breivik we need to adress the concept of education and competence in a world of instant access and exponential growth of information. Our current model was developed in and for a time when information was scarce and high valued. Today information is almost free and limitless. The idea of exams, cheating, and reproductive skills and knowledge is preventing us from reaping the true benefit of the digital learning revolution. COMMENT: A fundamental reason to pursue digital media rich environments is that we live in a digital world. This raises many question, concerns, and unknowns that should matter to both policymakers and educators—all of them stemming from the fact that education has the responsibility to equip young people with the necessary digital competence that will allow them to cope with the challenges that connectedness is currently posing to them.Successfully preparing all learners with the skills and capacities for 21st century citizenship—global awareness, creativity, collaborative problem-solving, self-directed learning—is no small order, and many educational leaders are finding that the traditional forms of education that have evolved through the end of the last century are simply inadequate for achieving these goals. [[user:morten.soby|1379676658]. The degree and school structures need to change for learning in new environments. How can school space, time, teacher-learner relationships redefined? - heidi heidi Sep 30, 2013 - thomas.hepso thomas.hepso Sep 22, 2013 For example, recruitment policies for work in higher education make it difficult for younger employees to get jobs. Younger teachers who often has a more natural use of new technologies can have difficulties finding a job, which also means that the average age of teachers in the teacher education is high.- Liv.Dahlin Liv.Dahlin Sep 22, 2013 * Students left to informal learning contexts. A particular challenge is the differences in the use of ICT in schools. When ICT are not systematically included in the school are students at all levels left to informal learning arenas for knowledge of source criticism, privacy and more.- thomas.hepso thomas.hepso Sep 22, 2013
  • There is a systemic incoherence between curriculum, professional and leadership development and assessment in the digital domain in Norwegian schools. Building on OECD work (See Johannessen, Ø. and Pedró, F., (2010) Conclusions: lessons learnt and policy implications, in: OECD (Ed) Inspired by Technology, Driven by Pedagogy: A Systemic Approach to Technology-Based School Innovations (Paris, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, OECD), there is an imbalance between the requirements in our national curriculum on the one hand and PD and assessment on the other hand. PD and schools leadership will be elaborated in the next bullet. With regard to assessment, a recent White Paper made the claim that Norway is an international leader with regard to using ICT in assessment. That may be true for the administrative side of it, but in terms of so-called embedded assessment (formative) Norway still has a way to go. > - oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Sep 21, 2013- morten.soby morten.soby Sep 29, 2013 *
  • Initial teacher training and in-service training is lagging behind in the digital domain. Initial teacher training in Norway is lagging behind with regard to its responsibility of educating teachers who are digitally literate. The discrepancy here is that we have formal requirements through the national curriculum with regard to the use of ICT in the subjects at all levels. Teacher training have few formal requirements with regard to how they secure sufficient digital literacy among student teachers. The irony is that primary and secondary schools have stronger requirements with regard to ICT use than teacher training, who is supposed to serve the needs of schools. The fact that teacher training both on University and in the teacher college level has so little requirements as to the use of ict and changing the pedagogy is a huge challenge in Norway since it means the development will be very slow and that the divide between those who use ICT to Tech 21 Century skills and those who don't will not diminish anytime soon. - Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Sep 30, 2013 - oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Sep 21, 2013- per.hetland per.hetland Sep 24, 2013 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Sep 29, 2013- morten.soby morten.soby Sep 29, 2013 The Norwegian teacher education is a system characterized by a slowness which means that it takes time to follow trends and development. The fact that the employees are largely specialists in specific fields and that the average age is high, leads to an inertia in the system. Recruitment policy in higher education should play a bigger role in bringing development to go faster. Interdiciplinary research and development has also been given too little focus.- Liv.Dahlin Liv.Dahlin Sep 26, 2013
  • Digital literacy in the curriculum should be revised or embedded in new ways. The current concept of digital literacy was conceived ten years ago through a memo from the then ITU and later included in the report for the Quality Commission ("Søgnen-utvalget") and the 2004 White Paper on Primary and Secondary Education. There is a need for a new and systemwide discourse on the concept of digital literacy, its role in today´s educational system in Norway and in the curriculum. Some think that the concept of digital literacy has outlived itself - oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Sep 21, 2013 - Kristin.Skeide.Fuglerud Kristin.Skeide.Fuglerud Sep 21, 2013 - Liv.Dahlin Liv.Dahlin Sep 22, 2013- thomas.hepso thomas.hepso Sep 22, 2013 (- rolf.oistein.barman-jenssen rolf.oistein.barman-jenssen Sep 29, 2013) We have a new revised curriculum in Norway. Unfortunately the revised curriculum is skill oriented. Several international studies note that talking in terms of skills provides only a narrow perspective on education and learning activities. We need to update the term digital competence. The term encompass and combine the application of skills, qualifications and knowledge. Digital competence points to an integrated and comprehensive approach that enables us to reflect on the influence of ICT on different qualifications such as communication skills, social skills and pupils' critical jugdements. By focussing on a greater degree of the use of ICT integrated in all subjects both teachers and pupils will develop the necessary ICT skills while building competence in areas such as navigation and critical appraisal of sources, and an understanding of the social significance of digital technology.Digital Competence should be understood, in its wider sense, as a multi-faceted concept.- morten.soby morten.soby Sep 23, 2013 Visual competence has in too little degree been taken into the understanding of digital competence. Visual information is at the center of a lot of activities in digital and social media. This can be seen in the increased use of images as a means of communication in social media and the amount of images used. This makes it necessary to learn how to make and use visual elements to express yourself and to "read" others. A visual world requires knowledge to be able to read and interpret for thus in turn to produce digital products with a good visual content and expression. This can be described through six key visual categories which greatly affects the digital media today: 1) Text and symbols: Text, graphs, lines, letters, symbols and wordclouds. 2) Information Graphics: How to create and interpret visual representations of information such as statistics by color, size, text, shape, symbols and silhouettes. 3) Digital Drawing: Mindmaps, digital notes and sketches. 4) Illustration and documentation of dailylife. 5) Moving Images: Film, video, digital storytelling and animation. 6) Pictures as artistic expression: Being able to create and interpret various art forms through working with different visual effects. - Liv.Dahlin Liv.Dahlin Sep 26, 2013 > >
  • The quality of the schooling system in K-12 needs to be improved to provide more skilled and motivated students. Huge difference in how schools adopt their teaching to new technology will increasingly challenge how we engage and motivate students. The already huge delta from how classes are organized and the society we are living in, will continue to make it difficult for students to reach their full potential. As we see lighthouse examples of schools having success with integration of digital content and tools, we lack an nation wide approach to improve the general level. It seems to be very dependent on individual skills and engagement in school, classes and in the school owners organization, whether the students get access to devices or digital content (which can be an important part of improving motivation and learning outcome). - bjornarh bjornarh Sep 22, 2013
  • Norway is a small market with five million inhabitants, and at the moment we are dependent upon resources developed in other languages and a different pedogogic context and tradition. For digital competency and the use of new technologies in schools to be successful, we need resources in norwegian that are adapted to our traditions. This is a challenge as the size of the market is small and the cost of developing the resources in norwegian could be high. At the same time there is always a risqué being the first to market with new technologies. There is a possibility that the uncertainty of payback on investment will slow the integration of new technologies in Norwegian K-12. - jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Sep 24, 2013 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Sep 29, 2013
  • The success and dominance of the major learning platforms in Norway hinders educational innovation. Almost every school in Norway uses a learning platform of some kind, usually one of the two largest in Norway. From the content and service producers' point of view this means they often have to adapt their content/service to both platforms to be able to sell to the small Norwegian market. They also have to maintain a separate service for the schools that don't use one of these two platforms. Development of content and services have become costlyand some have to choose which part of the already small market they are able to provide services to. From the schools point of view these wall gardens are increasingly seen as limiting and and not fit for purpose. Many teachers and schools still happily lives within the safety of these orderly gardens with their tightly integrated services and content from major providers, but we see a trend where more and more teachers and schools want to choose their own services and content from many different providers. This mindset is difficult to realize in the current platforms. In the coming years we'll probably see the strain/struggle between teachers and schools, service/content providers and learning platforms rise and the fallout is unclear. Will the learning platforms loose some of their dominance and only be used as a management service or will they adapt fast enough to be fit for the emerging trend. - snorre.lovas snorre.lovas Sep 26, 2013 In the US Blackboard (which had a 70 % market share not many years ago) are being challenged by new learning platforms that have sharing, social media and collaboration at their core, not as an afterthought. We don´t see the same thing happening in Norway, probably because of the Fronter/It´s Learning duopoly and the risk of establishing new products in a small market. - morten.dahl morten.dahl Sep 27, 2013 If we look back: Learning Managements Systems (LMS) has been oversold: as the only solution and platform for learning and implementation of ICT in education. Today many school leaders and teachers are concerned: Is LMS is about to become a new conservative platform that prevents innovation - morten.soby morten.soby Sep 27, 2013 It is a paradox that is some areas we are allowing diversity, like BYOD, but in others we are rigid and controlled. I'm thinking about the use of LMS (compulsory), exams (everyone needs the same ones at the same time, just as tests and seat time in school. The same goes to attendance at school. In some areas, and in most areas in other sectors we are flexible. In school we are not. Technology should offer endless opportunities, not limit our choices. Students should be able to sit for exams and tests when they are ready, not the school or teacher. - Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Sep 30, 2013 - jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Sep 27, 2013 LMS as the only elearning environment must die. LMS (or something similar) as a really important tool for both enclosed safe places and student administration will live on. - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Sep 29, 2013 - June.M.Breivik June.M.Breivik MOOC - when will student start demanding credits for their MOOC-attendance? Will the advent of MOOCs challenge the Norwegian education marked?
  • In Norway, it is a challenge that there are three levels of responsibility for administering the educational system and for implementing national ICT educational policy. The Ministry of Education and Research has the overall responsibility for administering the educational system and for implementing national educational policy. The Directorate for Education and Training is the executive organ of the Ministry and is responsible for the development of primary and secondary education. In each of Norway's 19 counties, the County Governor represents the central government at regional level, contributing to the implementation of national education policies in schools on all levels. Municipalities are responsible for the running and administration of primary and lower secondary schools, while counties are in charge of upper secondary schools administration. Digital literacy is defined as a basic skill in the national curriculum. Because the national curriculum is regarded as a legal directive, it becomes the most important ICT policy for schools. It is the responsibility of school owners that schools have the necessary equipment in order to meet the competence aims regarding digital literacy, and each municipality or county authority has its own programmes or initiatives in order to meet these demands. In upper secondary schools, most students have their own laptop provided by the school. The introduction of digital skills in Norwegian schools has proceeded too slowly, for reasons including local self-management. This is now reflected in the widening gaps between Norwegian schools. - morten.soby morten.soby Sep 30, 2013 One of the core values in the present curriculum in Norway, the Knowledge Promotion Act, is the freedom of methods used in the classroom. The municipality or teacher is the one who chooses how to adapt the curriculum in the classroom. In order to increase the use of ICT in norwegian education we must inform, support and convince the local authorities and the teachers. - jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Sep 30, 2013
  • Digital skills and the use of ICT for learning do not appear to be embedded in different reform areas, measures, prioritized areas and national programmes to any appreciable extent. Challenge in policy and national programmes: The programmes Assessment for learning, Class leadership and School-based competence development for the lower secondary level are examples of national programmes where it is difficult to ascertain whether they relate to the challenges and opportunities found in digital school realities. The inequalities are not unique to the school sector; insufficient attention to ICT has been evident in nearly all parts of the public sector, cf. the debates on the police, the health services and Norway’s declining scores on international rankings of e-government.- morten.soby morten.soby
  • It is a great challenge that teachers and schools are still so dependent on textbooks. Publishers produce books, journals, or databases in order to earn money, therefore protecting their materials. One can speak of protected educational resources. The big question, however, concerns what the education sector wants. Will it give publishers a place within the practice of OER?- vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Sep 29, 2013 Teachers relate more to the textbook than curriculum. How can the creation of digital content acceptance in schools and providing teachers educational content in digital format? - heidi heidi Sep 30, 2013.
  • New ways of learning challenge the way we measure and document the value of knowledge and skills. The way we measure will affect the learning process. Relevant evaluation forms and relevant ways to demonstrate knowledge and skills must be developed. The challenge is perhaps more legal and organizational than technical. The Mooc phenomenon challenges the university sector in evaluation methods and documentation of knowledge. Similar challenges will have to come in K-12 schools.- vegard vegard Sep 29, 2013 [Editor's note: Added here from RQ 3] We are not using digital media for formative assessment the way we could and should. Assessment is an important driver for educational practice and change, and over the last years we have seen a welcome rise in the use of formative assessment in educational practice. However, there is still an assessment gap in how changes in curricula and new skill demands are implemented in education; schools do not always make necessary adjustments in assessment practices as a consequence of these changes. Simple applications of digital media tools, like webcams that allow non-disruptive peer observation, offer considerable promise in giving teachers timely feedback they can use. - June.M.Breivik June.M.Breivik shall we look into the new international trends of badges and new ways of documenting skills and competencies. Also skills that the current educationsystem do not adress. * COMMENT: Introduction of formative assessment is essential to support the development of pupils' basic skills and digital competencies for the modern workplace. School owners must make clear strategic priorities and also set clear requirements for schools' assessment practices . The schools in turn must develop good systems for assessment - here should be digital and assessment forms developed in line with the curriculum and school owners' priorities. Nationally should work with digital mapping tests developed, and digital examination should be a reality within a few years . Schools must be prepared for the digital assessment is a major national scope , it is important to start development work since the skills and practices must be developed over time - morten.soby morten.soby]* COMMENT: In the near future our current, official ways to give students assesment are going to be obsolete. Students, or people in general, are learning in a new way due to internet and tecnology. The process, and how we choose to do our tasks are more inportant then the result. Assesments must relate to that. - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Sep 20, 2013 How to use ICT for feedback, not only formative assessment is a major challenge, as the formal formative assessments and reflection practices meld and mold. - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Sep 29, 2013